Road Accidents

Introduction

Road Accidents are major health concern across the world ,resulting in a significant loss of life,injury and property damage. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 1.35 million die every year due to road Accidents .According to human tool, road Accidents have a magnificent economic impact,causing annual loss of over 518 billion dollar annually.A number of people becomes disable due to road accidents.A road accident is an unanticipated event that occur on a way or street open for public traffic resulting in being one or more people killed and involve at least one moving vehicle . In Pakistan 75 % road fatalities and injuries occur in the productive age group of 15 to 64 years .

Types of Road Accidents 

There are several types of road accidents including :

  1. Rear-impact accidents:

In this type one vehicle collides with the rear of another vehicle .

2. Side-impact accidents :

One vehicle collides with the side of another vehicle.

3. Head-on accidents:

Two vehicles collide front to front. 

Beside these major types there are many other types like bus accident in which bus is involved in a accident,truck accident,accident in which vehicle leaves the road and collides with something,accidents in which vehicle hit the pedestrian,accidents in which drivers are drunk etc .

Causes of Road Accident

Road accidents occurs due to various errors like :

  1. Human Error :Driver behavior,such as reckless driving ,leaving the track is a major cause of road accidents .
  2. Vehicle Problem :Other cause of accident is vehicle problems .Tyre bursts,not checking the oil in engine and overheating of vehicles due to lack of water and faulty brakes are also a cause of accidents .
  3. Environmental Factors : Environment is also a major factor in road accidents like sudden turn,slippery roads ,lack of awareness sign boards etc.
  4. Social Factors:Driver fatigue ,alcohol consumption and social pressure is also a cause of road accident.
  5. Driving without driving license and lack of awareness about driving :It is the major cause of accidents.Now a days people are driving without driving license.They don’t know how to drive .Teenagers drivers are common now a days .They don’t know anything about driving laws .They don’t know about lane and line ,road signs ,speed limit due to which accidents are common .

PREVENTIVE MEASURES 

To reduce the incident of road accidents ,several preventive measures should be taken .

  1. Education and awareness :To reduce accidents ratio,there is need to educate people and should initiate awareness compaigns.More knowledge about traffic ???? rules should be given to people .
  2. Enforcement :There should be law enforcement to reduce accidents.People violating traffic rules should be fined .In this way accidents ratio decrease magnificently .
  3. Vehicle Safety :Before starting journey,there should be examine of vehicle parts like brakes are working,engine oil is up to limit ,water is sufficient there and lights are working properly.
  4. Road Infrastructure:When roads are made up of high quality ,it decrease accident ratio .Roads should be well lightened with reflectors and road lights and fenced by sides so that animals should not   come to road during night time .

Loss due to Accidents

  1. Human loss :Death,injury and disability have devastating effect on the families and community .
  2. Economic Loss:Medical expenses, property damage and loss of productivity can have a substantial economic burden .
  3. Social Loss:Accidents leads to social isolation ,emotional trauma and disruption of community .

 

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