Role Of Energy In Modern World


Energy is defined as “Capacity to do work”. Energy is the driving force behind our lives,powering everything from our homes and businesses to transportation and technology. It is a vital component of modern society ,and its impact on the environment, economy and human well being is immense. Here we will discuss types of energy, advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and challenges to energy .

Types of Energy 

There are following types of energy .

      1. Renewable Energy 

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from natural resources that can be replenished over Renewable energy is a sustainable way to generate energy as it reduces our reliance on finite fossil fuels and lowers greenhouse gas emissions.

Solar,wind ,hydro and geothermal energy are types of renewable energy.

       a.Solar Energy 

Energy which we get from sun is called solar energy .It is the major source of energy.Sun is the ultimate source of solar energy.This source of energy is free of cost and life is impossible without this .

       b.Wind Energy 

Wind energy is the harnessing power of wind to generate electricity or mechanical power.It is a renewable energy source that uses wind turbines to convert kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy .

       c.Hydro Energy

Hydro energy also known as hydroelectric power is a form of renewable energy source ,that harnesses the energy of moving water to generate electricity.It is one of the oldest and largest sources of renewable energy worldwide .

       d.Geothermal Energy 

Geothermal energy is a heat energy from the earth.Geothermal resources are reservoirs of hot water that exit or are humanmade at varying temperatures and depths below the earth surface .

       2.Fossil Fuels

Coal ,oil and natural gas are the most widely used energy sources ,accounting for over 80 % of global energy consumption.They are relatively cheap and easy to extract ,but their combustion releases harmful greenhouse gases ,contributing to climate change.

       3.Nuclear Energy 

Nuclear power plants generate electricity through nuclear reactions ,providing a low carbon source of energy .However,safety concerns,radioactive waste disposal and high costs make it controversial option .


  • Energy from fossil fuels is cheap,easy to extract and has high energy density  .
  • Renewable energy is clean ,sustainable and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Nuclear energy is low carbon ,reliable and has high energy density.


  • Fossil fuels contribute to climate change , resources are finite and environmental degradation.
  • Renewable energy is intermittent ,high up front costs and land requirements.
  • Nuclear energy has safety concerns ,radioactive waste issue and high costs .


Energy is a critical component of modern society ,and its impact on the environment, economy and human well being is significant.Fossil fuels have powered our growth and development . Energy is required for the production and use of technology.

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